Raw Material Chloramphenicol CAS 56-75-7 for Antibacterial
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.This includes meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever. Its use is only recommended when safer antibiotics cannot be used. Monitoring both blood levels of the medication and blood cell levels every two days is recommended during treatment.It is available intravenously, by mouth, and as an eye ointment.
Chloramphenicol Basic information
Physicochemical property Antimicrobial spectrum Mechanism of action Pharmacokinetics Indications Drug resistance and drug resistance Drug interactions Adverse reactions and precautions Chemical property Uses Methods of production Category Toxicity grading Acute toxicity Combustible hazard characteristics Storage and transportation characteristics Fire extinguishing agent
Synonyms:,[theta-(theta,theta)]-;[R-(R*,R*)]-2,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]ethanamide;2,2-dichloro-n-(2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl)-acetamid;2,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-,[R-(R*,R*)]-Acetamide;2,2-dichloro-n-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-acetamid;Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-(beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl);Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-, [R-(R*,R*)]-;Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-[beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-p-nitrophenethyl]-, D-threo-(-)-
Product Categories: Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients;Antibiotics for Research and Experimental Use;Biochemistry;Others (Antibiotics for Research and Experimental Use);Antibiotic Explorer;Amines;Aromatics;Intermediates & Fine Chemicals;Pharmaceuticals;API;Chiral Reagents;Pharmaceutical intermediate;CHLOROMYCETIN;antibiotic;Pyridines
Chloramphenicol Chemical Properties
Melting point:148-150 °C(lit.)
alpha:19.5 º (c=6, EtOH)
refractive index:20 ° (C=5, EtOH)
storage temp.: 2-8°C
Water Solubility:2.5 g/L (25 º C)
(1)Chloramphenicol is active against the three main bacterial causes of meningitis: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. In the West, chloramphenicol remains the drug of choice in the treatment of meningitis in patients with severe penicillin or cephalosporin allergy and general practitioners are recommended to carry intravenous chloramphenicol in their bag. In low-income countries, the WHO recommend oily chloramphenicol as first-line to treat meningitis.
(2)Although its use in veterinary medicine is highly restricted, chloramphenicol still has some important veterinary uses.It is currently considered the most useful treatment of chlamydial disease in koalas.The pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol have been investigated in koalas.
(3)Chloramphenicol is effective against a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including most anaerobic organisms. Due to resistance and safety concerns, it is no longer a first-line agent for any indication in developed nations, although it is sometimes used topically for eye infections; nevertheless, the global problem of advancing bacterial resistance to newer drugs has led to renewed interest in its use. In low-income countries, chloramphenicol is still widely used because it is exceedingly inexpensive and readily available.
(4)The most serious adverse effect associated with chloramphenicol treatment is bone marrow toxicity, which may occur in two distinct forms: bone marrow suppression, which is a direct toxic effect of the drug and is usually reversible, and a plastic anemia, which is idiosyncratic (rare, unpredictable, and unrelated to dose) and generally fatal.
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