Product Name: Xylazine
Chemical Properties White to Off-White Solid
Usage: Antinociceptive;Alpha-2 adrenergic agonist.
Xylazine is an analogue of clonidine and an agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor. It is used for sedation, anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and analgesia in animals such as horses, cattle and other non-human mammals.Veterinarians also use xylazine as an emetic, especially in cats.
In veterinary anesthesia, xylazine is often used in combination . It is sold under many brand names worldwide, most notably the Bayer brand name Rompun.It is also marketed as Anased, Sedazine, and The drug interactions vary with different animals.
Xylazine is often used as a sedative, muscle relaxant, and analgesic. It is frequently used in the treatment of tetanus. Xylazine is very similar to drug such as phenothiazine, tricyclic antidepressants, and clonidine. As an anesthetic, it is typically used in conjunction .Xylazine appears to reduce sensitivity to insulin and glucose uptake in humans.Yohimbine has been used to decrease glucose levels to a healthy level. In clinical settings, Yohimbine can reverse the adverse effects of xylazine if administered intravenously at a dosage of 0.5 mL / 20 pounds shortly after xylazine administration.
Humans Xylazine overdose is usually fatal in humans.Because it is used as a drug adulterant, the symptoms caused by the drug accompanying xylazine administration vary between individuals.
The most common side effects in humans associated with xylazine administration include bradycardia, respiratory depression, hypotension, transient hypertension secondary to vagus nerve stimulation, and other changes in cardiac output.Xylazine significantly decreases heart rate in animals that are not premedicated with medications that have anticholinergic effects.The decrease in heart rate directly impacts aortic flow. Bradycardia caused by xylazine administration is effectively prevented by administration of atropine or glycopyrrolate. Arrhythmias associated with xylazine includes other symptoms such as sinoatrial block, atrioventricular block, A-V dissociation, and sinus arrhythmia.
Xylazine administration can lead to diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia.Other possible side effects that can occur are areflexia, asthenia, ataxia, blurred vision, disorientation, dizziness, drowsiness, dysarthria, dysmetria, fainting, hyporeflexia, slurred speech, somnolence, staggering, coma, apnea, shallow breathing, sleepiness, premature ventricular contraction, tachycardia, miosis, and dry mouth.Rarely, hypotonia, dry mouth, urinary incontinence and nonspecific electrocardiographic ST segment changes occur. It has been reported that the duration of symptoms after human overdose is 8 to 72 hours. Further research is necessary to categorize the side effects that occur when xylazine is used in conjunction
Chronic use is reported to be associated with physical deterioration, dependence, abscesses, and skin ulceration, which can be physically debilitating and painful. Hypertension followed by hypotension, bradycardia, and respiratory depression lower tissue oxygenation in the skin.Thus, chronic use of xylazine can progress the skin oxygenation deficit, leading to severe skin ulceration.Lower skin oxygenation is associated with impaired healing of wounds and a higher chance of infection.The ulcers may have a characteristic odor and ooze pus.In severe cases, amputations must be performed on the affected extremities.
Animals Side effects in animals include transient hypertension, hypotension, and respiratory depression.Further, the decrease of tissue sensitivity to insulin leads to xylazine-induced hyperglycemia and a reduction of tissue glucose uptake and utilization.The duration of effects in animals lasts up to 4 hours.
Xylazine is often used as a sedative, muscle relaxant, and analgesic. It is frequently used in the treatment of tetanus.
Xylazine is very similar to drug such as phenothiazine, tricyclic antidepressants, and clonidine. As an anesthetic, it is typically used in conjunction .Xylazine appears to reduce sensitivity to insulin and glucose uptake in humans.Yohimbine has been used to decrease glucose levels to a healthy level. In clinical settings, Yohimbine can reverse the adverse effects of xylazine if administered intravenously at a dosage of 0.5 mL / 20 pounds shortly after xylazine administration.
Xylazine can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, subcutaneously or orally. The commercial product contains 23.32 mg/ml xylazine hydrochloride in water based injectable solution. Xylazine can be obtained also as pure crystalline powder. There is a significant species dependent response to xylazine administration. Intramuscular dose of up to 0.3 mg/kg for cattle has been suggested by the manufacturer. The recommended doses for horses were 0.6 mg/kg and for sheep 1.0 mg/kg. For dogs the dose was even higher.Xylazine is an analogue of clonidine and an agonist at the α2 class of adrenergic receptor. It is used for sedation, anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and analgesia in animals such as horses, cattle and other non-human mammals. Veterinarians also use xylazine as an emetic, especially in cats.
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